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Journal Extension and Development of  Watershed Managment
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 Volume8،Number29 ،Successive29
 
1
Study of Hydraulic Parameters of Karstic Aquifers in Khorramabad County
( 283 Visit ) ( 66 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 8 - Number 29 - Successive Number 29
Auhtors :
Abstract : Groundwater is one of the most dispersed and most important sources of the earth's crust. The groundwater flow in the karstic rocks is completely different from the movement of this fluid in nonkarstic zones, This flow shows the specific hydrological characteristics of the karstic zones. For the full development of underground water reservoirs, it has to be highly assessed in terms of quantitatively and qualitatively to avoid unnecessary information and assumptions from groundwater, resulting in false usage and reduction. Since karst water resources, large reserves of underground water in different regions of the country, Especially in the study area, it is necessary to be more dynamic and active in the management and preservation of water resources. The purpose of this study was to Assesment of hydraulic parameters of Karstic aquifers in Khorramabad city. In this study, seven regional aquifer Karstic were studied. All of the studied mirages are inundated and exited from carbonate formations. As the aquifers of Robat, Motahari, Golestan, Gerdab Sangi, Changhai (Niloofar), Nawekash, and Dureh Karst Formation has been developed; and kyo aquifer, despite the fact that it has the most drainage, is located in less developed formations. By comparing dynamic storage and annual discharge volumes, Because the dynamic storage volume of the Mirage Kyo, Gerdab sangi, Robat and Dureh is less than the annual evacuation volume, if the wells are dug in the limestone formation of the aquifer and then exploited, the springs will not be able to drain at the peak of consumption. Therefore, it is suggested that this should be avoided as much as possible. Given that the duration of the dynamic storage of the Mirage Kyo is low, the Gerdab sangi is small and the type of mirage is also non-permanent. It is suggested that these mirages should not be used for development projects when the aquifer Recharge is cut off.
Area of Expertise : Groundwater, Karstic zones, Maintenance management, Formations, Hydrological

characteristic

2
Application of biochars for soil and water conservation: A review
( 263 Visit ) ( 36 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 8 - Number 29 - Successive Number 29
Auhtors :
Abstract : Soil and water resources are among the most important natural resources of every country that provide human and animals nutritional needs; but, unfortunately they are constantly abused and changed by human and inhuman factors. The use of biochars has been recently considered in the international scientific societies, as a strategy for soil and water conservation. Biochar is a porous carbon-rich material produced by heating any organic biomass in an oxygen-free environment through a process namely pyrolysis. Application of biochars would cause some achievements such as waste management, improvement of soil productivity and quality, reduction of runoff volume and pollutants, energy production and reducing environmental issues including climate change and water pollution. It should be noticed that, both soil and biochar affect the efficiency of biochars in fundamental functions of the soil. Considering the conducted studies, it can be concluded that the biochars has been mostly used for agricultural products and goals, and less for soil conservation. Biochar should be more considered for soil and water conservation due to its ability in runoff and erosion control, of course considering their adverse effects under different conditions.
Area of Expertise : Soil erosion, Soil biological conservation, runoff, sediment.

3
Flood Plain Zoning of Gamasiab River in Different Return Periods
( 295 Visit ) ( 98 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 8 - Number 29 - Successive Number 29
Auhtors :
Abstract : Flood plains rivers are fertile lands that are considered by humans and people are always demanding the development of these areas. Therefore, protection and management of flood plains is essential. In this research, an interval of about 80 kilometer from the Gamasiab River in Kermanshah province was studied. First, using OLI and sentinel sensor for marginal lands classification object oriented method. The results of the verification showed that the sentinel sensor map is more accurate than the OLI sensor. So, to simulate the flood plain, periods 25, 50, and 100 of the sentinel sensor image were used. The results showed that in all periods, more than 95 percent of the extracted areas are related to two waterland fields and dryland fields, because flood plains of the rivers are fertile lands that are considered by humans and humans are always demanding the development of these areas. In addition, residential properties in the 25 period are 2/29 hectare, all of which are riverside villages, Hence, it is necessary that by establishing the rules and implementation of the civil regulations of flood plains, which is one of the direct control mechanisms of land use in these areas, Incorrect use of the land around the river has become its authorized use and the river boundaries have been identified.
Area of Expertise : Kermanshah, classification, river, OLI, sentinel

4
Analysis of Cash Subsidy Opportunity for Siminehrood Watershed Farmers to Change Cropping Pattern to Restore Lake Urmia
( 287 Visit ) ( 19 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 8 - Number 29 - Successive Number 29
Auhtors :
Abstract : In this study, the possibility of change in cropping in the Siminehrood watershed was evaluted by paying cash subsidies for farmers to restore Lake Urmia. Therefore, the scenarios of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100% reduction of high water requirement cultivation to low water water requirement (wheat) cropping were analyzed to reduce water consumption in the agricultural sector. On the other hand, the decrease in the net income of farmers as well as government incentives was calculated for each scenario. The results showed that, in the zero scenario (current state), about 0.6 billion m3 of water is used in the agricultural lands of the watershed, which had an income of 5813.14 billion IRR. In the Eleventh scenario (100% of high water requirement cultivation areas to wheat cropping), the water use rate is reduced by 73% compared to the current state (scenario 0), which will require the government to pay people a subsidy of 3107.44 billion IRR in one year. Ultimately, the water savings from the 10 to 100% cropping changes scenarios will be 25 to 253 million m3.
Area of Expertise : Incentive scenarios, Reduction of water use in agriculture, Water resources management, Rights of water.

5
Groundwater Potential Mapping using the weights of evidence and statistical indexes in Najafabad, Iran
( 253 Visit ) ( 41 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 8 - Number 29 - Successive Number 29
Auhtors :
Abstract : Groundwater resources are one of the most valuable sources of water for various uses. In this study, the potential of groundwater resources in Najafabad study area was evaluated using statistical index and weight of evidence. For this purpose, 4484 wells in the area with a discharge of more than 11 liters per second were randomly divided into two groups (70%) and validation (30%). Then digital layers of variables affecting groundwater potential (Elevation, Slope, Slopedirection, Surface curvature, Topographic wet index (TWI), Land use, Soil, Lithology, River distance and Drainage density) were constructed in ArcGIS10.5 environment. And then, using the weighted overlay method, the final groundwater potential map was prepared. Finally, the ROC curve of the groundwater potential map was prepared to determine the accuracy of the final map using SPSS19 software. Accuracy based on this curve was 93.2% for the statistical index model and 74.1% for the evidence weight model, indicating high accuracy of the statistical index model compared to the evidence weight model for this region. Therefore, it can be said that using GIS-based models for potential groundwater prone areas are appropriate and reliable.
Area of Expertise : GIS, Moisture index, Quantile method, ROC.

6
Evaluation of Discharge Simulation of Baghan Watershed Using Four-variable Salas Model
( 235 Visit ) ( 32 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 8 - Number 29 - Successive Number 29
Auhtors :
Abstract : Water balance and flow analysis within a basin is particularly important in terms of water development and utilization programs. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate and predict the outflow rate of Baghan watershed in Bushehr province. The data required for the implementation of the rainfall and discharge models were used to obtain the precipitation data of the Baghan Meteorological Station and the discharge of Baghan Hydrometric Station from 1981 to 2010. The Salas model is derived from a number of simple sub models that characterize different flow processes in the basin such as surface runoff, infiltration, evapotranspiration, deep infiltration and base flow. Error squares were used to calibrate the function model. The results of this study showed that the highest amount of rainfall in the basin was evacuated from the basin by evapotranspiration. The results showed Relative root mean square error before and after optimization of the coefficients of the four-variable Salas model decreased from 2.18% to 1.5% and the mean absolute error from 10.13 to 0.73. and mean error of the Salas four-variable model showed that in the years when the discharge value is almost average, the simulation value is very close to the observed value, and when the discharge value is much higher than the normal years, the simulation value is the less than its observed value.
Area of Expertise : Water Balance, Evapotranspiration, Aquifer Storage, Surface Runoff, Base Flow.

7
Watershed Adaptive Management
( 242 Visit ) ( 31 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 8 - Number 29 - Successive Number 29
Auhtors :
Abstract : The lack of sustainable management of natural resources is one of the fundamental challenges to which societies and governments are faced and should be therefore addressed more seriously in the future. Hence, effective management of nature and environment requires a coherent and a knowledge-based structure, enough, reliable and up-to-date information. Accordingly, ‌adaptive management is a landmark to achieve sustainable resource management.‌ However, applicability of watershed adaptive management has not been assessed yet. The present study therefore aims to apply the watershed adaptive management consists of identifying‌ the problems, ‌designing‌,‌ implementing measures, ‌monitoring, assessing the ecosystems conditions and finally adjusting approaches. It is further planned to develop appropriate conceptual model for the adaptive management at the watershed scale. The performance will be then compared to that of the application of conventional measures. Towards this, the details of different sectors of adaptive management will be designated based on scientific standards and bases. Accordingly, assessment of watershed health, diagnosis of appropriate strategies, implementation of low impact and best management practices and ultimately performance evaluation will be taken place in the present Study.
Area of Expertise : Watershed Land Use Planning, Watershed Health and Sustainability, Performance‌ of Watershed Management Measures, Comprehensive Watershed Management

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