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Journal Extension and Development of  Watershed Managment
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 Volume6،Number20 ،Successive20
 
1
Introduction and Applicability of Game Theory in Watershed CoManagement
( 1538 Visit ) ( 209 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 20 - Successive Number 20
Auhtors :
Abstract : A watershed is a complex and dynamic system which is identified as planning and management unit. Hence, considering all technical, socioeconomical, physical, ecological and organizational dimensions is essential for proper planning and management processes. Since, different stakeholders usually have conflicting goals and sometimes contradictory demands; decision making for the management of the watershed in order to achieve an optimal solution is difficult. Accordingly, to achieve the comanagement of the watershed, different stakeholders should be allowed to be involved actively in decision making processes. Toward this, various management tools have been developed to facilitate multi-objective decision making processes. In this regard, the application of game theory approach seems to be of use for the comanagement of the watershed with various stakeholders. To this end, the present study aimed to introduce game theory as one of novel and useful tools in decision making and to assess the applicability of the game theory in reducing conflicts upon common resources of watersheds as well. Based on previous studies, the game theory has an essential role in analyzing various viewpoints of stakeholders and is an effective method for opting watershed management practices, comprehensively. 
Area of Expertise : Group Decision Making, Management Models, Optimization Models, People’s Participation, Watershed Management.

2
Investigating the Effect of Biological Recovery Operations on Soil Organic Carbon Storage (Case Study: Hossein Abad Basin - South Khorasan Province)
( 1707 Visit ) ( 139 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 20 - Successive Number 20
Auhtors :
Abstract :     The implementation of biological recovery operations has an effective role in flood control, nutrition of groundwater, regeneration and strengthening of vegetation and desertification control especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Hence, efficient management tools such as mechanical and regenerative operations can provide suitable conditions for organic carbon sequestration in natural ecosystems. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the aim of evaluating and quantitatively determining the carbon sequestration of soil in remediation operations of seed, cultivation, construction of crested forage and seedlings in Hussein Abad watershed. In order to soil sampling in the region of each rehabilitation activity, three transects of 200 meters were spaced 30 meters apart from each other in a random-systematic way. Of the 10 plots deployed along each transect, ten plots were randomly selected in each one, a profile was drilled under the canopy of the sample and digested at a depth of 30-15 cm. The results of statistical analysis of the data showed that carbon sequestration has increased significantly as a result of corrective action. The total amount of carbon sequestrated in Hossein Abad watershed with an area of 3153 hectares, 63834.3 tons of organic carbon, is equal to the average of 20.24 tons per hectare. Also, the amount of carbon content of vegetation cover in planting treatment was the highest compared to control and was able to average 23.4 tone carbon per hectare. Seeding and seeding operations with the least amount of carbon sequestration ability were able to sequester 17 tons of organic carbon per hectare. In general, it can be said that the plant vegetative correction, especially planting, as an action to protect the natural ecosystem of Hussein Abad watershed, has high capability in soil carbon sequestration.
Area of Expertise : Biological Recovery, Soil, Carbon Sequestration, Hossein Abad

3
Climate Change adaptation approach in related to assessing oppprtunities and challenges
( 1557 Visit ) ( 80 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 20 - Successive Number 20
Auhtors :
Abstract : Watershed management and natural resources measures including management, mechanical and biological projects are carried out to crucial renewable resources (water, vegetation and soil) and sustaining agriculture and soil fertility. However, serious concerns have been enhanced due to climate continues change impacts. This Research was carried out in the Razin watershed, Kermanshah Iran . The objective of this research was to evaluate the watershed management projects from the perspective of the local inhabitants regarding sustainable environment and agriculture. The projects were measured within Middle East and North Africa Regions Program for Integrated Development (MENARID). The results explored that pit- seeding, rain-fed orchard, check dam, concreted-stony dam and gabion and dyke. The pit- seeding was found relatively successful practice, while almost almond plantlet in the rain-fed orchards was dried. The biological project did not precept by local responders and no any income for their. The responders confirm that they did not call for participating in practices process and thereby they not willing with these measures. Some necessary issues in related to watershed management were neglected including optimizing water utility, minimizing soil disturbance, improving tillage systems, proper management of agricultural inputs. There are necessary issues for combating and adapting climate change condition and overcome land degradation in the study area.
Area of Expertise : Biological Measures; Kermanshah Province, Mechanical Measures; MENARID Project; Watershed Management  Project

4
Spatio-temporal Variable of groundwater parameters Using Geo-statisticalmethods in Mashhad Plain
( 1647 Visit ) ( 98 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 20 - Successive Number 20
Auhtors :
Abstract : Groundwater is the main source of agricultural, drinking and industrial needs, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between groundwater quality and water level in Mashhad Plain. In this study, qualitative information of 41 underground water piezometer wells for months of feeding and evacuation was investigated in 2001-2015. The GS + software and the GIS environment were used to map and Zonation using different interpolation methods. The results showed that the ordinary Kriging method with the lowest RMSe and the highest R2 had the best estimate in the region. The study of the predominant class of groundwater in Mashhad plain was classified as "good" and "moderate" for agricultural use, with Wilcox, C2-S1 and C3-S1 charts for drinking purposes. The results of the review of water quality parameters showed that, other than Mg, the rest of the parameters had incremental changes over the years, and among these parameters, electrical conductivity (EC) and  the total dissolved solids (TDS) had a more significant increase, which reduced water quality during this It's been years. The average correlation between the spatial variation of the surface of the stand and the EC is -0.35 and -0.45, which indicates increased salinity by decreasing the aquifer's water level. The results of this research indicate that the main cause of water quality decline in Mashhad plain was the existence of industrial and residential areas and agricultural land development.
Area of Expertise : Interpolation methods, Water salinity, GIS, Mashhad Plain.

5
Drought Condition Severity and Zoning based on Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI) in Fars Province
( 1591 Visit ) ( 65 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 20 - Successive Number 20
Auhtors :
Abstract : One of the main problems that the human beings are facing these days, is the occurrence of the hydrological droughts and the resulting water crisis. Since the hydrological droughts happen gradually and have long term effects, drought monitoring is of a high importance. Among the indices of drought monitoring, the rainfall abnormality index (RAI) is being widely employed because of its simplicity and high accuracy. The required precipitation data have been gathered from 10 hydrometric stations with an appropriate distribution in the studied region, including the Kazeroun, Dasht Arjan, Farashband, Band Bahman, Jahrom, Joukan, Bovanat, Kaftar Lake, Ghalat, and Neyreez stations. The gathered data are for a statistical period of over 20 years from 1991 to 2011. The drought zoning diagrams are presented for long periods and the most severe droughts are determined. The results revealed that in all stations، generally and roughly, drought occurred sporadically in the form of a 1-year periods between 1991 and 2001. And between 2002 and 2011 drought, mostly occurred in the form of multi-year long periods. Based on the RAI، the two most severe droughts occurred in 2000 in Jahrom station showing an index value of -3.94 and in 1994 in Kazeroun station with an index value of -3.87. Moreover, RAI shows that the most precipitation was recorded in 1996 in Neyreez station with an index value of 4.63.
Area of Expertise : Fars province, hydrological drought, IDW method, Rainfall Anomaly Index, intensity and continuity.

6
Droughts Zoning Caspian Plain with using SPI and CZI Indices
( 1520 Visit ) ( 115 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 20 - Successive Number 20
Auhtors :
Abstract : Drought is one of the atmospheric phenomena that adverse effects on various sectors environmental, economic and social gradually identified and is tangible and that is the reason it is also called creeping disaster. In this study, droughts zoning for five years consecutive caspian plain with using spi and czi indices with Arc Gis for stations synoptic: Astara, Inchebron, Bandar anzali, Babolsar, Ramsar, Rasht, Ghaemshar, Gafarhaji, Gorgan and Noushar collected. For this purpose, total rainfall for 25 years 1986 to 2010 was considered .The results indexs show that, most wet  year for stations Astara with index  respectively 2.6 and 2.22 in 2000 year and most dry year  for station Babolsar in 2010 year with index  respectively -2.86 and -2.39. Based maps drought five year in 1990 most of the drought in the eastern part of the caspian plains and other areas faced with lower rates. in 1995 year the drougt has led to the central plain and in 2000 year area west and central plains experienced drought magnitude is different. in 2005 year drought with differeant magnitude occurred in all parts of the plains and  also in 2010 year all part plain caspian withness  drought and process drought has decrease in east to west plain caspin.
Area of Expertise : Drought, Plain Caspian, station synoptic, zoning.

7
Site selection for underground dams in selected basins of Markazi province with a Decision Support System of Spatial data
( 1481 Visit ) ( 85 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 20 - Successive Number 20
Auhtors :
Abstract : Underground dam is one of the choices of ground water management. These dams are reservoir water in small scale. Because of the low complexity of the construction and low cost and lack of surface evaporation in this type of dam, it is possible to construct these dams in all regions of the country. Various factors involved in site selection of underground dams, so locating them is a complex and time taking. Therefore, in this study, geographic information system (GIS) was used as a new method for locating Channel Rivers suitable for the construction of the dams in Khoshkrood basin in the north of Saveh city. Initially to select suitable areas, a number of criteria such as the dip of the faults and unfavorable geological formations, the unsuitable areas were excluded from the study area. Then among suitable areas with using criteria such as the distance from the Qantas, roads, agricultural area, quality and quantity of groundwater and the depth of the reservoir, three places are selected for dam construction.
Area of Expertise : Subsurface runoff, Site selection, Saveh City, ARC GIS, Spatial components

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