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Journal Extension and Development of  Watershed Managment
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 Volume5،Number19 ،Successive19
 
1
Modelling the Relationship between Physical Characteristics of Watershed and the Runoff and Sediment (Case Study: Garmab Watershed, Razavi Khorasan Province)
( 1384 Visit ) ( 154 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 5 - Number 19 - Successive Number 19
Auhtors :
Abstract : Achieving to the detailed information about flood and sediment, due to practical problems and the lack of hydrometric and sediment gaging stations is very costly and difficult. Therefore existence research is sought to determine the significant relationships between the physical parameters of Garmab Watershed and various components of flood and sediment. For this purpose, all input information such as area and basin environment, maximum, minimum and basin average altitudes of sea level, main stream length, main stream slope, basin slope, coefficient of shape and drainage density variables, annual erosion and special erosion (m3/km2/y) and flood with the return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years (m3/s) was collected. Then, the relationship between 8 estimated parameters of flood and sediment and 10 physical parameters of watershed through the methods of multivariate regression analysis and neural network was performed. The study of the effective inputs in the multivariate regression method showed that the variables of area and basin slope are the effective parameters in flood production and the variables of area, minimum and basin average height and the main stream length are the effective parameters in the sediment production at Garmab Watershed. Also the radial basis function network (RBF) for the predicted values of specific erosion and multi-layer perceptron network (MLP) for the predicted values of the estimated annual erosion respectively with the maximum value of the coefficient of determination equal to 0.98 and 0.99 and the minimum value of the root mean squared error equal to 0.16 and 253.56, selected as the most efficient model. But for the predicted values of flood with the return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years, the multivariate regression model according to the maximum value of the coefficient of determination, the minimum values of the root mean squared error and the absolute relative error was chosen as the best model.
Area of Expertise : Artificial Neural Network, Garmab Watershed, Multivariate Regression, Multi-Layer Perceptron, Radial Basis Function.

2
Locating and prioritize suitable areas for construction of gabion check dams using ANP model (case study: Troq watershed
( 1350 Visit ) ( 114 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 5 - Number 19 - Successive Number 19
Auhtors :
Abstract : Economic funding for the implementation of watershed management projects based on the economic importance of the region (water and soil), social and tourism is done. In this study, the priority areas for the implementation of watershed management project (gabion check dams) was used multi-criteria decision analysis (ANP). In the first stage criteria that include natural factors (precipitation, slope, geomorphology and land use), the economy (close to villages, roads and Quarries) was determined. The next step is to determine the factors in site selection and prioritization of areas for the construction of gabion check dams of expert's opinion (questionnaire) and to determine the coefficient of software Super decision criteria were used. Then, overlaying maps, site selection and prioritization of sub regional final map was obtained. The results showed that the most effective agents in locating dams Gabion erosion and slope coefficient b by a factor of 0/407 and 0/241 are important. According to the final 19 percent of the region's first priority is the construction of check dams. Analysis of the final map shows that this method acceptable results with high potential for locating and Prioritization for functional respectively.
Area of Expertise : Locating, Prioritizing, Gabion check dams, ANP and Torq watershed.

3
Effectability of generated runoff and sediment from different levels of Colza straw at small laboratory plots
( 1340 Visit ) ( 50 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 5 - Number 19 - Successive Number 19
Auhtors :
Abstract : Imbalance soil erosion is one of the dangers that threatens the availability of natural resources to communities by the high amount of runoff and sediment production. To control the effect of soil erosion, the application of the governing principles on the use of organic and inorganic soil stabilizers can be considered as an effective manner. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different amounts of Colza straw on runoff and sediment of loamy-sandy soils in the laboratory conditions. For this purpose, rainfall of 50 mm h-1 with duration of 10 min on plots with scale of 0.5 m2 in the three replications, with coverage values of 25 and 50% protection of Colza straw from industrial fields of Dasht-e- Naz Sari City is harvested and was simulated using rainfall simulator of Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources of Sari. The coverage values of 25 and 50 % of Colza straw provided from industrial fields of Dasht-e- Naz, Sari city was used for the present study. The results showed that the application of both levels of Colza straw had a significant effect (p
Area of Expertise : Erosion mitigation, Erosional plots, Organic amendments, Soil management.

4
A review on landslide effective factors in Iranian forest habitats
( 1335 Visit ) ( 53 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 5 - Number 19 - Successive Number 19
Auhtors :
Abstract : In Iran, natural conditions for creating a wide range of landslide are possible regarding to the severe rugged, mountainous areas, high tectonic and seismic activity, and various conditions of geologic and climatic. This subject imposes the annual loss of life and huge economic losses to the country. Factors affecting landslides are also different so the extent of the difference among watersheds as well as vegetation and rainfall are different in each region of forest habitat. Researchers studies based on forest habitat  showed that the effective factors on land slide are including more human factors than natural ones, i.e. land use change and establishment of infrastructures such as roads, dams, gas and oil lines and so on that could be managed technically. Human factors had majority of landslides occurred in a way that directly or indirectly impact on natural factors play an important role. In addition, reducing the country's forests because of the lack of integrated management plans in the country has been influential in increasing the landslides occurrence. So, the study on stability of slopes is necessary to build new infrastructure in the each forest habitat.
Area of Expertise : landslides, forest habitat, land use change, slope stability.

5
An Investigation on the regulatory and organizational frameworks for Integrated Water Resources Management In shared river basins with emphasis on Trans Boundary Rivers of Iran
( 1327 Visit ) ( 52 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 5 - Number 19 - Successive Number 19
Auhtors :
Abstract : Integrated water resources management, processes that promote the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources at the river basin level requires an efficient legal framework to provide clear rules and procedures. The role of law is important at all stages of the planning, design and implementation of water management systems. A number of concrete legal issues must be addressed, such as ownership of the water, shared responsibilities, possible injuries for actions and uses by one state, mechanism for cooperation among riparian states, allocations and restrictions for different uses, and methods for peaceful settlement of disputes. Applying an appropriate legal framework promotes efficient management and helps avoid or settle conflicts between competing water users and their interests. Therefore, in this research, firstly, are introduced important international rules about the method of governance and utilization of shared rivers. In the next step, is studied each of the trans boundary rivers (Tigris, Euphrates, Arvandrud, Hirmand, Heriroud, Aras, Atrak) in Iran country. Finally, Will be presented recommendations for the better development and management of the rivers. the Studies have shown that some of poor management returned to the economic, social and political relations of Iran with other neighbor countries, and as a result from previous studies it can be declare that Considering the available international rules and the condition of exploitation of countries with shared resources, societies and the state must move towards a rational and appropriate use with the right of sustainable development for both sides.
Area of Expertise : International Water Utilization Law, Integrated Water Resources Management, Trans boundary Rivers of Iran

6
     Assessing the effects of recent droughts on changes in groundwater level in the Sarvestan plain of Fars province.
( 1415 Visit ) ( 155 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 5 - Number 19 - Successive Number 19
Auhtors :
Abstract : Drought, Groundwater Level, Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Groundwater Resource Index (GRI), Sarvestan Plain.
Area of Expertise : خشکسالی، سطح آب زیرزمینی، شاخص بارش معیار شده (SPI)، شاخص منبع آب زیرزمینی (GRI)، دشت سروستان.

7
Severity and duration variations of monthly stream flow in Gorganroud Watershed, Golestan Province
( 1312 Visit ) ( 88 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 5 - Number 19 - Successive Number 19
Auhtors :
Abstract : The assessment of wet and dry hydrological periods is the primary and necessary basis of water resources management and planning. The aim of this study was to determine the hydrological drought spells, and its severity and duration variations at monthly time scale. For this purpose, 38-year recorded data (1975-2013) were used over 20 hydrometric stations in Golestan Province. The weighting factor of drought importance for each month was calculated based on the flow distribution in different months. The subtracted mean discharge of particular month from the long-term average was multiplied by the weighting factor to determine the effective discharge. The difference of mean monthly discharge and effective discharge was considered as monthly flow deficit. The onset and end of hydrological drought periods were defined and the cumulated flow deficits were calculated. According to the results, the NodeKhandoz and Sarmoo stations had no deficit amount in all months of the year which located at upland portions of the study area; while, the flow deficit durations were observed in July and August in almost all stations. The variations of flow deficit volume showed that the frequency of 4-5 month durations were higher than other duration spells. According to the clustering results, the similar stations (Taghiabad and Basirabad) had the highest flow deficit severity; while, the lowest flow deficit severity was observed in NodeKhandoz and Sarmoo stations.
Area of Expertise : Deficit volume, Hydrological drought, Effective discharge, Flow deficit severity

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