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Journal Extension and Development of  Watershed Managment
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 Volume5،Number17 ،Successive17
 
1
Evaluation the factors influencing on success of biological watershed management projects (Case study: Kakhk Gonabad Watershed)
( 1425 Visit ) ( 167 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 5 - Number 17 - Successive Number 17
Auhtors :
Abstract : Biological projects in the watershed area are one of the main activities in watershed management and soil conservation programs. Nowadays implementation of these types of projects in most of watershed area is considered. Studies have shown that these projects are more economical than the other operations and more effective in protecting water resources and soil. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of natural and human factors in the success of biological projects in the Kakhk watershed area. For this purpose, a questionnaire prepared and completed by the relevant experts in watershed area. The target population for this research was experts who were familiar with the project of Kakhk watershed. The sample population was consisted of 31 experts who are concerned that they completed questionnaires. Results of data showed that biological projects which are implemented by the watershed deputy of Khorasan Razavi’s office of natural resources were successful. Data analysis also discovered that human factors are more effective than natural factors on success of biological implemented projects in Kakhk watershed area. In this case experience of experts and social trust and benefits of people are more effective on success of biological projects which is implemented in Kakhk watershed area. Results of research also showed that there are no significant differences between educational groups and field groups of respondents on evaluation of biological projects (F=1.809, P=0.157), (F=1.118, P=0.359).
Area of Expertise : Watershed Management, Evaluation, Biological Projects, Watershed area, Kakhk, Gonabad

2
Determination of potential avalanche hazard in Karaj watershed using geographic information system
( 1480 Visit ) ( 104 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 5 - Number 17 - Successive Number 17
Auhtors :
Abstract : Iran country due to high climate diversity had been always exposed to natural disasters. One of the disasters is avalanche in snowy areas that can impose considerable damages on Iran social and economic position. This issue especially on the Chaloos road as one of the traffic routes in Iran is a serious threat and every year, it brings irreparable damages to life and property. Therefore, considering the importance of site selection and zoning of avalanche hazard areas is necessary and essential. In this study, avalanche hazard areas were determined using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing techniques. For this purpose, convexity, concavity, altitude and slope maps were produced using topographic map within the Arc GIS 10.2. Land use and land cover of the study area was then derived using satellite images. In the next step, the aftermentioned produced layers in GIS software was weighted and surveyed and then the high risk areas to avalanche was determined. The results obtained this study showed that null, moderate, high and very high avalanche risk areas cover 22.16, 25.69, 27.78 and 24.36 percent, respectively. These areas have significant compliance with ground realities.
Area of Expertise : Avalanche, Geographic Information System, Chaloos road, Snow.

3
Investigation of Climate Change Effect on Groundwater Balance and Level in Plain Ramhormoz
( 1660 Visit ) ( 144 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 5 - Number 17 - Successive Number 17
Auhtors :
Abstract : Climate change has a significant impact on surface and groundwater resources. Due to the impact of climate changes on groundwater resources are indirect and slower than surface water, monitoring and sustainability of the resources affected by these changes is very important. In this study investigate effect of climate change on balance and groundwater table in Ramhormoz plain of Khuzestan province with purpose achieve the different potential of water resources with proper management and optimum use of water was done. In this study, as well as meteorological data including precipitation, radiation and daily minimum and maximum temperatures were recorded and after model calibrating in the period 1997-2010 using the scenario A2 by HADCM3 model to predict the climate in the years 2011-2040 were conducted. Lars results will also indicate an increase in annual precipitation (78 mm), increase in the minimum and maximum temperature (0.5 °C) and increase of 254 mm in annual evapotranspiration. The results showed that reviewing the unit hydrograph, the water level generally declined in a 17-year period. According to the balance calculations, the Ramhormoz unconfined aquifer is encountered to reduce the volume of store. So that according to amount of inputs and outputs, the storage changes is -7.33 million cubic meters. Total output and input volume to the Ramhormoz aquifer are 37.16 and 44.49 million cubic meters, respectively. Measured storage volume changes by unit hydrograph according to the coefficient storage and aquifer area were estimated -8.68 million cubic meters that they are confirming the balance calculations.
Area of Expertise : Climate Change; Ramhormoz Plain; Unit Hydrograph; Water Balance

4
Assessing Livestock Farmers' Knowledge Regarding Rangeland Conservation and Influencing Factors (Case Study in the Mahneshan Township)
( 1572 Visit ) ( 87 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 5 - Number 17 - Successive Number 17
Auhtors :
Abstract : The main aim of this research was to assess livestock farmers' knowledge and attitude regarding rangeland conservation actions and to analyze the factors affecting this knowledge. The study utilized a mixed methodological approach including a survey and case study. The target population in the study was 1280 livestock farmers of rural areas in the Mahneshan Township, in which rangeland projects had been implemented or was being implemented. Using a multi-stage sampling technique, a sample of 204 farmers was selected randomly. Data were collected through existing documents review, focus groups, semi-structured interviews and structured interviews. Farmers had a positive attitude towards the importance of rangelands and had relatively high knowledge regarding the biological control and grazing management of rangelands, but they had a low level of knowledge about their mechanical control. Moreover, based on a step wise regression analysis, farmers' knowledge about the rangeland conservation were determined by farmers' attitude, age, having beekeeping, attending training courses and interaction with external experts.
Area of Expertise : Rangeland management, livestock farmer, Attitude, Conservation Knowledge, Mahneshan, Rangeland.

5
Evaluation of sediment yield  in alteration zones and Tange  Bostanak watershed formations
( 1377 Visit ) ( 33 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 5 - Number 17 - Successive Number 17
Auhtors :
Abstract : Sediment yield production is now one of the most important environmental problems of humanity has become. So identify areas of Sediment productive is the most important examples of soil management in order to optimum utilization and decrease it. The aim of this study is to identify alteration zones, providing information layer deposition coefficient and Prioritization geological formations in this zones, as well as Tange Bostanak in terms of watershed sediment yield. For this purpose, using the pixel and subpixel methods and are assigned commision, ommision, the user precision, accuracy producer, the overall accuracy and Kappa alteration zones were identified and then using CSY model and GIS Capabilities that  was prepared to determine Sedimentation coefficient pixel by pixel in the region . The results showed that the SFF method is suitable for mapping alteration zones. Propylitic zone in the basin with 46/278 square kilometers area is the highest distribution. The results showed the Gurpi formation despite 2/04 kilometers of surface area of 80/73 square kilometer basin and the relative importance has the Most role and Razak formation with 875/3area,  with small coefficients are minimal role in the production sediment basin. Asmari formation are arranged with a distribution of 61% from the fourth priority area in terms of the rate of deposition. The results showed that the erosion potential  in the catchment basin of the East and the West increased to the center and the north and north-west to the south and southeast is reduced. The biggest sediment yield (3/54-8/91) can be seen in the central, West and Northwest region.
Area of Expertise : Altration, Formation, Sediment yield, RS, Tange Bostanak

6
A Report on Effectiveness of the Watershed Management Society of Iran on Sixth Development Program of the Country
( 1317 Visit ) ( 45 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 5 - Number 17 - Successive Number 17
Auhtors :
Abstract : According to the conditions and needs of each country, the planning must be create for its development. Therefore, the capacities and needs of each county determine the special type of short-term, medium-term and long-term planning. For development in Islamic Republic country of Iran, the strategies and plans provide to form of long-term, medium-term and long-term that the five-year development plans are among these programs. The five-year development plans have different sections that the study of different sections especially watershed management, water and soil and agriculture have extra important for natural resources and agriculture sections. But, the society status of country watershed management in the reformations and suggestions is noteworthy in five-year development plans. In this regards, the draft of sixth development plan several times was explored in professional meetings of society and the suggestions presented for completing some plan paragraphs. Therefore in present study, the effectiveness reportage of watershed management society presented on sixth program.
Area of Expertise : County Policies and Rules, Sixth Development Plan, Soil and Water Conservation, Watershed Management Society of Iran.

7
An Overview on Application of Sediment Particle Size Distribution Science in Temporal and Spatial Scales
( 1289 Visit ) ( 33 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 5 - Number 17 - Successive Number 17
Auhtors :
Abstract : Investigation of sediment particle size distribution (SPSD) was considered as a new science to investigate the SPSD interactions in fluvial systems by hydrologists, geomorphologists and geochemists since 1980s. Accurate understanding of complexities of SPSD behavior in different environments will help overcoming management problems in soil and water conservation as well as pollutants transferring in the environment. This study was conducted to provide comprehensive information about the importance and application of SPSD in different spatial and temporal scales. The present study at first provided the definition of SPSD from different perspectives of scientists, then introduced the SPSD measurement methods and finally, investigated SPSD variation at different spatial and temporal scales. Such information could be used for better understanding and management of transport of sediment and sediment-associated nutrients as well as contaminants such as phosphorus, pesticides, heavy metals and pathogenic agents. In addition, the results are useful in engineering projects such as drinking water, wastewaters and rivers and is valuable to identify the soil erosion processes.
Area of Expertise : Absolut sediment size, Effective sediment size, Soil aggregate, Soil conservation, Water erosion.

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