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Journal Extension and Development of  Watershed Managment
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Journal Extension and Development of  Watershed Managment

Extension and Development of  Watershed Managment

The latest Published Issue
 Volume7،Number24 ،Successive24
 
1
Meteorological drought monitoring and spatial analysis using by SPI, ZSI, and EDI (Case study: Isfahan Province)
( 41 Visit ) ( 1 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 7 - Number 24 - Successive Number 24
Auhtors :
Abstract : Water shortages and droughts can cause serious crises in human life. Drought is a reversible phenomenon that can indirectly lead to social crisis and public health risks and have negative effects on the environment, ecology, and so on. In this research, in order to analyze meteorological drought in Isfahan province, precipitation data of 21 meteorological stations were used for the period of 1993-2017 and EDI, SPI and ZSI indices were calculated using MATLAB codes. Kriging estimator which is the best estimate for drought zoning based on literature reviews, was used to provide isovalue map of different calculated indices in ArcGIS10.3. The results showed that severity of the EDI, SPI and ZSI indices are different. Based on SPI values and drought intensity classification, the area faced moderate and severe drought classes during 1993 to 2017 has increased by 2.7 and 16.1 percentage respectively. ZSI values showed that, the region experienced moderate, severe, and extreme drought during the study period has decreased by 95.9, 95.1, and 97.3 percentage respectively. Based on EDI values showed that, main region of the province in 1992, 2006, and 2017 faced extremely wet, extremely wet, and severe drought with the area of 33.6, 49.8, and 44.6 percentage respectively.
Area of Expertise : Isfahan Province, Meteorological Drought, SPI, ZSI, EDI

2
Virtual Water, New Approach to Water Crisis
( 53 Visit ) ( 25 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 7 - Number 24 - Successive Number 24
Auhtors :
Abstract : The water crisis is rapidly expanding in vast areas of the world. Our country due to be located in dry belt of the earth, the rainfall is less than the global average, the disproportionate distribution of temporal and spatial of rainfall, population growth and per capita demand for water, as well as the consumption of inappropriate water resources is no exception for this reason. According to studies, more than 90% of the country's water is used by the agriculture. A review of water resources management and management approaches, especially in the agriculture, could prevent significant losses of water resources. Water used in different stages of production or an agricultural product called the virtual water that flows through the trade (import and export) of the agricultural product, both nationally and internationally, as a stream of virtual water trade. As the importing country imports virtual water in addition to the food product. Countries like Iran, which are located in arid and semi-arid areas with a dehydration problem, can save water on their water by importing water, or use their own water resources in other areas.
Area of Expertise : Water crisis, agriculture, water resource management, virtual water, virtual water trad

3
Hydrological and hydraulic behavior studies about urban flood through part of the Sari city
( 44 Visit ) ( 10 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 7 - Number 24 - Successive Number 24
Auhtors :
Abstract :    Urban watershed shows quite different hydrological and hydraulic behavior from natural watershed. Cities, that located along the Caspian coastline, have been flooded annually several times by relatively extreme storms and it creates a negative outlook in the cities. Comprehensive planning, design and management of surface water drainage systems are essential for creating a safe environment for the citizens. Computer models control urban run-off. Studying area is 39.64 (ha) that it was divided into 51 sub-basins. The simulation of flooding in urban catchment basins for this study was required information such as climatic, topographic, hydrologic regime, current status of surface water collecting network and hydraulic properties. In this study, urban flooding is simulated by MIKE SWMM model. By applying this model, in term of hydrologic and hydraulic data of the drainage systems, capability of surface water collecting system were evaluated for safe passage wandering water with design storm for 2, 4 and 6 hours and return periods of 2, 5, 10 and 25.  The critical nodes and channels were identified after simulation. In result, simulation also showed that some existing water channels in this region, have not capability of passing design floods and this inability causes extra load and creates flooding condition in ending nodes over critical routs. Thereby, this long-time condition creates serious difficulties in transportation system and make inundation in the roads.
Area of Expertise : Urban Watershed, Drainage system, Hydrologic simulation, Hydraulic simulation, Computer mode

4
Modeling of Soil Temperature Using Meteorological Factors, Multivariable Regression and Artificial Neural Networks (Case Study: Bandar- Abbas Synoptic Station)
( 39 Visit ) ( 3 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 7 - Number 24 - Successive Number 24
Auhtors :
Abstract : Soil temperature is an important and influential parameter on plant growth that is not measured regularly and continuously at all weather stations. Thus, soil temperature data is lacking. Soil temperature differs in depth and is affected by ambient. The aim of this study is modeling soil temperature in the different depths (5, 40, 20, 30, 50 and 100 cm) and clay- sandy texture using meteorological factors, multivariate regression and artificial neural network in the Bandar Abbas synoptic station during 1993-2017. Result showed that the air temperature, pan evaporation and dew point have the highest correlation coefficient with soil temperature. The mean absolute error (MAE) is 1.09-1.88°C (from 10 to 100 cm of soil depth) in the multivariate regression model while it is 1.17-1.85 °C in the artificial neural networks. Thus, multivariate regression model is proposed due to the simplicity and the lack of significant difference with artificial neural network model. This model can be used in similar regions to predict soil temperature in different depth.
Area of Expertise : Multivariate Regression, Artificial Neural Networks, Soil Temperature, Meteorological Factors, Modeling.

5
Estimation of monthly low flow rates during different return periods in rivers of Ardabil province
( 43 Visit ) ( 16 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 7 - Number 24 - Successive Number 24
Auhtors :
Abstract : Considering the harmful effects of drought, it is important to recognize and evaluate the frequency of low flow. Analysis of low flow is a method for estimating hydrologic drought. In this study, 33 hydrometric stations used in Ardebil province for hydrological droughts survey. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intensity of the low flow (hydrologic drought) using the gamma distribution of two parameter and the relationship between low flow  with the percentage of occurrences and the return periods and plotting the curves in different basins have discharge statistics in Ardebil province. The results of this study showed, with increasing the return period, the intensity of the low flow decreases and the severity of drought increases. The discharge values at the two-year return period change from 0.01 to 0.95 at the stations of the booran and atashghah respectively. In the return period of 100 years, the low flow rate at Bouran and Nair stations are the lowest (0) and maximum (0.21) of the value respectively. Since the occurrence of drought causes significant damage to the economic, social, political and environmental sectors of the country, consideration of this phenomenon is necessary in order to achieve the goals of sustainable development.
Area of Expertise : Low Flow, Hydrological Drought, Two-parameter gamma distribution, Water resource management, Ardabil province

6
نقش آبخیزداری شهری در توسعه­ ی پایدار شهری با تأکید بر مدیریت رواناب­ ها
( 62 Visit ) ( 14 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 7 - Number 24 - Successive Number 24
Auhtors :
Abstract : در صورتی که آبخیزداری را به معنی یکپارچه یک حوزه­ی آبخیز بدانیم، شهر به عنوان یکی از واحدهای اصلی یک حوزه­ی آبخیز به شمار می­رود. امروزه آبخیزداری شهری، به عنوان یکی از زیر شاخه­ های مهم آبخیزداری، راه­کارهای بهره­ برداری و مدیریت پایدار از منابع آبخیز در حوضه­های شهری و حریم آن­ها را به منظور بازسازی تخریب­هایی که در اثر توسعه­ی شهری به وجود آمده است طراحی و تدوین می­نماید و در پی راه­کارهایی با تأکید بر توسعه­ی پایدار شهری جهت نگهداری منابع برای حال و آینده در محیط شهر، از طریق استفاده­ی بهینه از زمین، و وارد کردن کمترین ضایعات به منابع تجدیدناپذیر است. با توجه به اهمیت توسعه و ترویج آبخیزداری شهری در ایران، و ارتباط نزدیک آن با توسعه­ی پایدار شهری، و ضرورت آگاهی مدیران و برنامه­ریزان عرصه­های شهری، در این پژوهش سعی بر آن شده به بررسی نقش آبخیزداری شهری در توسعه ­ی پایدار شهری با تاکید بر کنترل رواناب و استفاده بهینه از باران از طریق استحصال آب باران در پشت­بام­ها، بام سبز، و یا در راستای تقویت آب­ های زیرزمینی از قبیل استفاده از روکش­ های نفوذپذیر که همگی بر اهمیت مدیریت رواناب­ ها در مباحث آبخیزداری شهری تأکید دارند، پرداخته شد.
Area of Expertise :  آبخیزداری شهری، توسعه­ ی پایدار، رواناب، مدیریت

7
Investigating the Strategies for Reducing Dust Storms Density in Sistan Region using SWOT Analysis
( 42 Visit ) ( 3 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 7 - Number 24 - Successive Number 24
Auhtors :
Abstract : The Sistan region has long been known as one of the critical centers of wind erosion due to sand and dust storms. The high sensitivity of the soil to wind erosion, the existence of droughts and regional political disagreements has all limited the way to combat this phenomenon. But along with all the limitations, there are strengths and capabilities in the Sistan region that can be turned into opportunities to combat wind erosion. The identification of these factors was done by using field studies, MODIS and Landsat 7 (ETM+) satellite image processing and expert consultation. Then, using the SWOT analysis, the weight and rate of internal and external factors were evaluated. The results showed that native solutions for decreasing dust concentration in Sistan region can be done in three scenarios based on the strengths and weaknesses as well as the opportunities and threats existing in the scenarios. Among the strengths and weaknesses, respectively, the presence of vegetation on the margin of Lake Saberi Hamoon and the lack of credibility and lack of native skills of communities with soil conservation methods have the highest score in assessing the internal factors. Also, the highest score is in assessing external factors, including renewable energies and regional political disagreements.
Area of Expertise : Satellite images, storms, Sistan and SWOT analysis.

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