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Journal Extension and Development of  Watershed Managment
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Journal Extension and Development of  Watershed Managment

Extension and Development of  Watershed Managment

The latest Published Issue
 Volume6،Number23 ،Successive23
 
1
The Effect of Land use Changes and Drought on the Groundwater Level in Chaghalvandi area
( 78 Visit ) ( 22 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 23 - Successive Number 23
Auhtors :
Abstract : Optimal management of natural resources requires an understanding about the effect of land use/ land cover change on hydrological circle of the water in the area. The location of this study is Chaghalvandi, Lorestan province. In this research, to investigate the relationship between land use changes and drought with groundwater-level decline maps of land use were extracted from ETM satellite images of the Landsat satellite during 2004, 2009 and 2014. Next, the images were processed and analyzed, and then land use was classified into six levels including forest, pasture, shrubbery, agriculture field, residential area, and miscellaneous. The Kappa coefficient for the 2004, 2009, and 2014 classifications was 0.89, 0.9 and 0.92, respectively. Quantitative data of 18 piezometric wells during 2004, 2009 and 2014 were used to assess the relationship between land use change and groundwater level dropping in the area. The moving averages of 3, 5 and 7 year periods were used to determine precipitation level changes and drought and wet periods. The results showed that deterioration of the natural resources, destruction of forest lands and turning them into agriculture fields and residential areas, and groundwater level dropping in the time of long term drought. In 2104 the level of groundwater has dropped about 6 meters in comparison to 2004.
Area of Expertise : Groundwater resources, Drought, Piezometric wells, Satellite images.

2
A review of the mechanism of stabilizing the effects of mulch on the movement of sandy soils
( 76 Visit ) ( 9 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 23 - Successive Number 23
Auhtors :
Abstract : Wind erosion phenomenon is considered as one of the main processes of land degradation in arid and semi-arid regions. The emission of dust and motion of sand by wind power is known as one of the main causes of the desertification process, resulting in the conversion of agricultural areas to landfills and the creation of sand coverage on them. The sand dunes, due to insufficient moisture and lack of appropriate plant cover, have little adhesion and are susceptible to erosion of the wind, thus stabilizing and preventing their development is necessary. One of the common methods of controlling sand is mulching on a surface of sandy hills, where mulch is divided into two groups of oil and non-oil. Recently, paying attention to the problem of environmental degradation by the oil mulch and the high cost of using this type of mulch, has enabled the country's scientific and research centers to investigate the changes in the type and methods of mulching. In the present study, mulches have been introduced from the point of view of their mechanism of action in stabilizing sandy soils and recognizing the disadvantages and the benefits of using mulches. The results of this study indicate that although the traditional use of oil mulch has been an important step in the implementation of sand stabilization over the years, due to its many disadvantages and problems, including the high cost of using this type of mulch and the necessity of using the machine Heavy machinery in field operations, environmental and health problems with this type of mulch and, ultimately, the huge losses that our economic resources each year suffer from wind erosion, Today, it is suggested that, while using oil mulch in very urgent cases, research and promotion of the use of biodegradable mulch using various titles should be used in order to improve the properties and the quality of these biohazardous mulches in the future, production costs It was reduced to an acceptable level.
Area of Expertise : Wind erosion, erosion, moving sand, stabilization, mulch.

3
Vegetation buffer zones and their role in the watershed management
( 82 Visit ) ( 19 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 23 - Successive Number 23
Auhtors :
Abstract : Concerning current various problems in the agricultural sector and non-point pollutions, the economic sense of prospective farmers requires the farmer to seek actions to preserve nutrients and soil in the farm. On the other hand, muddy and destructive floods threaten the water and food resources and the interests of human, annually. In such a situation, buffer zones can be considered as a modern idea and environmentally adaptive for farmers and human societies. Buffer zones in the watersheds also have diverse effects and services for human, which are currently less known to country managers. Natural buffers in two regions of Gorgan and Minoodasht cities in Golestan Province are as typical samples of buffer zones in Iran. Reducing the effects of destructive floods and protecting the city water resources from entry of non-point contaminants are most advantages of these buffers. The results of this study showed that buffer zones of the two studied regions play an important role in upgrade the ecosystem health of these areas. On the other hand, by designing and modeling buffers for critical areas of these two areas, flood damage and pollution can be reduced and farmer incomes increased. Based on these results, the use of buffer zones as a bioengineering tool in the studied areas is proposed.
Area of Expertise : Buffer modeling, Buffer strips, Chehel-Chai, Gorgan, Management of watershed.

4
Watershed ecological integrity, an introduction
( 74 Visit ) ( 8 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 23 - Successive Number 23
Auhtors :
Abstract : Human activities leading to landscape change and thus change the structure, composition and function of the watershed ecosystems. These changes face the watershed to many problems or impossibility of providing natural ecosystem services. Some of such activities including land change, tree cutting, mining and hunting leading to emerge destructive natural disasters such as fire or flood. These kinds of activities and changes undoubtedly affect the integrity of the watershed. In fact, watershed integrity is defined as the capacity of a watershed to support and maintain the full range of essential ecological processes and functions in providing the sustainability of biodiversity and of the watershed resources and services for society. Indeed, this concept is adapted from the concept of ecological integrity that is seriously discussed by ecologists. In the present paper therefore the emerging concept of integrity in the comprehensive and adaptive watershed management was introduced and comprehensive and necessary information on different indicators and approaches of ecological integrity evaluation was provided. Toward this, the watershed researchers and managers could use these approaches to elaborate a native comprehensive approach in order to watershed ecological integrity of the country.
Area of Expertise : Integrated watershed management, Landscape, Managerial tool, Watershed ecological potential

5
Provide appropriate management strategy using the QSPM-SWOT compilation model with the aim of organizing nomads (Case study: Native tribe of Ghoud of Arab-Taheri Tabas)
( 72 Visit ) ( 2 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 23 - Successive Number 23
Auhtors :
Abstract : The study of the economic and social problems of nomadic societies is one of the strategic issues of the states, which is considered as an essential step in the development of appropriate management strategies in this regard. The present study was carried out to investigate the Goud of Arab-Dahar problems of Tabas area and based on the SWOT analytical model. At first, by visiting the area and providing the questionnaires, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the region were determined. Then, the matrix of internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (opportunities and threats) were prepared and for evaluation (spectrum of lycritis) were presented to experts and natives of the region. After defining the factors influence coefficient (final coefficient) in the matrices, a strategy of minimum-maximum WO was determined. This strategy is the second type of strategies and the combination of opportunities and weaknesses, which is designed according to the combination of factors of these two parts, the appropriate strategy. In the following, in order to determine the appropriate strategies, using QSPM matrix, six strategies were identified using the combination of internal and external factors, which ultimately identified two strategies. 1- Government attention to the deprived and tribal regions of the region and the establishment of health centers, cultural, welfare, communication, shopping centers and Selling and 2- Providing Comprehensive Plan for Nomadic Integration and After-Effects, Highest Score as Best Practice  Were identified.
Area of Expertise : Socio-economic issues, Society, SWOT analysis model, Management and planning, Tribes

6
Forecasting of desertification of Kerman plain, based on the climate criterion in 1409 using IMDPA model
( 67 Visit ) ( 2 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 23 - Successive Number 23
Auhtors :
Abstract : Desertification is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Destruction of water resources, degradation of soil, as well as degradation of vegetation is desertification symptoms. This challenge is not restricted to dry areas, but can be applied in all regions, especially dry, semi-arid, and humid areas. Destroy the affected environment. Therefore, knowledge of its severity can play a significant role in water resource management. In this study, the IMDPA model, which is native to Iran, has been used to predict the desertification of Kerman plain in terms of climate criterion in 1409. Study of climate criteria and its score in the study area is from three indicators of annual precipitation, SPI drought index and drought persistence index. Using predicted precipitation values ​​by LARS-WG model and IMDPA model, the annual precipitation index score was 3.8, the index of drought persistence index was 0.7 and the SPI index was estimated 3.5 points. In the GIS environment, all indicator mapping maps it was drawn up.

The results showed that the annual rainfall index is very severe in the desertification class, the index of drought persistence in the low desertification class, and the SPI drought index in the severe desertification class are located, and the geometric mean of these indicators and their synthesis intensity The desertification of the area on the horizon of 1409 is in severe class. The results of this study can help in the management of desertification processes in the region.
Area of Expertise : Desertification, IMDPA model, Climate criteria, Middle desertification, Kerman Plain

7
Evaluating the ecological potential of the strategic sub-basin scale for territory (Case study: Chavar city, Ilam province)
( 67 Visit ) ( 12 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 23 - Successive Number 23
Auhtors :
Abstract : It is an area of ​​science that, according to the ecological characteristics of the land and its social conditions, determines the economic and type of optimal use of the land. Meanwhile, the use of spatial data and the organization and analysis of these data is important for exploiting development issues, and has been growing at the research level of the day. Having appropriate maps of the ecological and environmental conditions of the land is very important for the evaluation. In this regard, the research studies multiple applications in a sub-field. For this purpose, the maps required after the preparation using the Arc Map software in the process Land use was integrated into Overlly's orders to evaluate the ecological capability of the ecological resource data of the basin, resulting in a map representing all the characteristics of the combined layers. In this research, based on the utilization, the priority was given to the use of semi-commercial forests with an area of ​​48.50 percent. In agriculture and rangeland, second-rate agriculture with a percentage of area of ​​34.87 percent in the lower parts of the area, including beekeeping, Horticulture included limited cultivation of low rice, such as rice, and in higher levels of sixth agriculture with an area of ​​47.02%, it indicates good conditions for rangelands, a large part of the area with an area of ​​74.02 km, In studying the results of the model at the stage of determining the power of the basin to the types of applications, the most suitable in the dock Watershed is among the most widely used forests and extensive outdoor recreation with an area of ​​37.27 and 35.42 square kilometers, which covers almost a large part of the area, and the lowest level for agricultural use with an area of ​​27.26 square kilometers According to the results of this research, the following studies can help managers in the correct management of the land and the positive productivity of the economic and social potential of the land and contribute to protecting the soil and soil that forms the basis of human life, and the ability of the land For future generations.
Area of Expertise : Land Suitability, GIS, Land Capacity, Chawar Watershed

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